¿Nutrición deportiva?

Si bien es cierto, tenemos un contexto muy marcado y muy claro de lo que debe de ser una nutrición normal para llevar una vida placentera y saludable. ¿Pero para un deportista es igual?

La respuesta a esto es un ¡NO! Como deportistas sean de nivel profesional, nivel intermedio o nivel principiante la alimentación es totalmente distinta, puesto que los deportistas consumen más energía en su actividad deportiva.

El sistema de alimentación de un deportista debe de ser muy acorde al tipo de persona y muy de la mano al deporte en que se enfoca la persona, también debe de ser muy equilibrada y energética. En toda dieta para un deportista sea cual sea el deporte debe de ser rica en vitaminas, minerales, un gran aporte de hidratos de carbono, proteínas y grasas.

Antes de pasar a hablar de cada uno de estos componentes alimenticios, también es importante que sepas de los sistemas de alimentación (o dietas) de entrenamiento, competición y recuperación.

PARA LA RECUPERACIÓN

Está comprobado que luego de realizar una actividad física exigente el organismo ingiere los nutrientes muy rápido en el lapso de 15 minutos luego de realizado el ejercicio, así que en este tiempo debemos de recuperar el glucógeno. Para esto se recomienda:

– ½ litro de bebida isotónica + 2 barritas + 1 plátano
– Luego de 1½ horas es aconsejable ingerir 50 gramos de carbohidratos ( que bien puede ser 125 ml de bebida isotónica, 30 gramos de pan y una fruta).

PARA COMPETICIÓN

Para una competición el sistema de alimentación a tomar en cuenta debe de estar cargado de carbohidratos, fibra y muy bajo en grasas previo a 3 días de la competición. El día de la competición el deportista debe de ingerir sus alimentos 3 horas antes, para obtener buenas cantidades de glucógeno y asegurarse de ya haber vaciado su sistema gástrico.

PARA EL ENTRENAMIENTO

Para esta sección debemos de fijarnos 5 comidas diarias, respetando los horarios de entrenamientos y alimentación normal (desayuno, almuerzo y merienda), dicho esto se puede comer una entre el desayuno y almuerzo, y la otra luego del entrenamiento. Los alimentos base de esta dieta son:

-1 litro de lácteos desnatado.
-250 gr. de pan
-150 gr. de carne o pescado o 2 huevos
-350 gr. de fruta fresca
-Vegetales frescos (libre)
-200 gr. de pasta o arroz (peso cocido) o 200 gr. de patata
-30 gr. de miel o azúcar
-50 gr. de frutos secos
-Aceite de oliva

Ahora pasaremos a los conceptos básicos de Proteínas, Grasas, Vitaminas, Hidratos de carbono y Líquidos.

Proteínas: Debido a la mayor masa muscular de un deportista necesita una mayor ingesta de proteínas con respecto a una persona sedentaria .Para esto deben de llevar una dieta balanceada, producto de las proteínas son las carnes, huevos, pescado, aves, lácteos.

Grasas: Una dieta creada para un deportista no debe de contener grasas. Por lo general y es muy recomendable tener una dieta con grasas insaturadas, los alimentos que lo contiene son aceites, frutos secos o pescado. Pero si bien es cierto ingerimos grasas saturadas, a tomar en cuenta que las grasas insaturadas deben de prevalecer si o si sobre las saturadas.

Vitaminas: Debemos de tener en cuenta que no es necesario ingerir suplementos vitaminados mientras tengamos una buena dieta y planificación de nuestros alimentos.

Hidratos de carbono: fuente de hidratos de carbono: los cereales como el pan, el arroz, las pastas, las galletas, legumbres, las frutas, las patatas, los dulces y azúcares y las bebidas y zumos azucarados. Tenemos que considerar que los hidratos de carbono deben de ser lo primordial en nuestra dieta, puesto que son la base energética para nuestra actividad deportiva.

Líquidos: Se recomienda tomar bebidas isotónicas aparte de que es muy bueno para la metabolización de nutrientes, estas bebidas las debemos de tomar antes, durante y posterior a los ejercicios, entrenamientos o competencias, dichas bebidas deben de estar entre los 10 y 16°C.

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