Proteína: ¿Mucha o poca?

Una de las preguntas más repetidas cuando empezamos a crear una dieta es ¿Cuánta cantidad de proteína necesito?, y a la hora de buscar información nos encontramos con gente que propone altas cantidades de proteína y otros que proponen cantidades muy bajas, con lo cual realmente no sabemos la cantidad de proteína que necesitamos.

Por una parte tenemos que OMS recomienda entre 0.8 y 0.85 gramos de proteína por kilo de peso corporal. Esa cantidad de proteína la considero correcta en personas con una nula actividad física. Hay estudios que demuestran que en personas no sedentarias se necesita consumir más cantidad de proteína, y en uno de esos estudios nos vamos a basar a la hora de redactar este artículo.

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Estudio sobre la cantidad de proteína

El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar los efectos de diferentes niveles de proteína en la dieta sobre la composición corporal y la síntesis de proteínas musculares durante una etapa con un déficit de energía (ED). En un ensayo controlado aleatorio de 39 adultos se les asignan unas dietas con diferentes cantidades de proteína:

– Un grupo consumirá 0.8g/kg (cantidad diaria recomendada; RDA)
– El segundo grupo consumirá 1.6g/kg, el doble de los que establece la OMS (2 ×-RDA)
– Por último, un tercer grupo consumirá 2.4g/kg, el triple de lo recomendado por la OMS (3 ×-RDA).

CONCLUSIONES

Los voluntarios perdieron de media 3.2 ± 0,2 kg de peso corporal durante ED, independientemente de la cantidad de proteínas de la dieta. Los voluntarios que en su dieta ingerían 1.6g/kg y 2.4g/kg de proteína obtuvieron mayor pérdida de grasa y menor reducción de masa libre que los que consumían 0.8g/kg. La respuesta muscular anabólica a una comida rica en proteínas durante el DE no fue diferente para los que consumían entre 1.6g/kg y 2.4g/kg, pero fue menor para los que consumían 0.8g/kg.

En resumen, se determinó que el consumo de proteínas de la dieta en niveles superiores a la dosis diaria recomendada puede proteger la masa magra durante la pérdida de peso a corto plazo.

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